The former Im Bank`s mission is to create and maintain U.S. jobs by financing sales of U.S. exports to international buyers. Ex-Im Bank is the largest government agency responsible for assisting the export of U.S. goods and services through a variety of credit, warranty and insurance programs. In general, its programs are available to every U.S. exporting company, regardless of size. The bank is chartered by the U.S. Congress as a public body; it was last chartered in 2006 for a five-year term. The Charter sets out the authorities and the Limits of the Bank. These include the principle that the former Im Bank is not in competition with private sector lenders, but provides financing for transactions that would otherwise not take place, either because commercial lenders are unable or because they do not want to accept the political or commercial risks associated with the transaction.
In the first two decades of the agreement, regional trade increased from about $290 billion in 1993 to more than $1 trillion in 2016. Critics are divided on the net impact on the U.S. economy, but some estimates justify the net loss of domestic jobs at $15,000 a year as a result of the agreement. The WTO also relays disputes between member countries on trade issues. When one country`s government accuses another country`s government of violating world trade rules, a WTO panel settles the dispute. (The panel`s judgment may be appealed to an appellate body.) If the WTO finds that the government of a Member State has not complied with the agreements it has signed, the member is obliged to change its policy and bring it in line with the rules. If the member finds it politically impossible to change his policy, he can offer compensation to other countries in the form of lower obstacles to other goods. If it decides not to do so, other countries may obtain WTO authorization to impose higher tariffs (i.e. “retaliation”) on products originating in the Member State concerned because they have not complied. Thematic funding is a generic term for a wide range of programs that include the prior definition of topics in which legitimate candidates are invited to propose specific research programs. One of the main advantages of thematic funding is that it can be targeted and thus exploit sectoral, regional and technological opportunities.